Selected bibliography on multipart singing in Bulgaria

Compiled by Lozanka Georgieva Peycheva: 2005

Introduction

The multipart singing in Bulgaria is typical for the rural traditional music of Middle West and South West Bulgaria. The multipart singing regions in Bulgaria (see map) include the Pirin region, a great number of the settlements on the western slopes of the Rhodope Mountains, the Southwestern Rodophe Mountains (Velingrad region), the Kyustendil region, the Pernik region, most of the Sofia region, the settlements in the Pazardgik region situated to the west of the city. According to the specific features of the mode structure, the tone scope and the movement of the second voice, the traditional multipart singing in Bulgaria is divided into four sub-regions: Pirin (Blagoevgrad, Gotse Delchev, Petrich, Sandanski regions), Middle West Bulgaria (Kyustendil, Pernik, Sofia regions), Pazardjik-Ihtiman and Velingrad regions.

The islands of multipart singing tradition in East Bulgaria are the town of Nedelino and some settlements in Northeastern Bulgaria (Omurtag region). The multipart singing tradition in these places situated out of the multipart regions is explained by migration of bearers of the tradition from the Northwestern Rhodope Mountains (Velingrad region) to Nedelino and from the Southwestern parts of Bulgaria to the settlements around Omurtag.

An addition may be made to the regions defined above, although it is concerning a multipart tradition that is not living today. In some settlements around the town of Belogradchik, North West Bulgaria multipart singing was practiced until the middle of the 20th century.

The western and the southern boundaries of the traditional multipart singing in Bulgaria are not identical with the state’s boundaries. The multipart singing tradition has its extension to some settlements in Serbia, The Republic of Macedonia and Greece.

The multipart singing in Bulgaria was first note documented in the last years of the 19th century. The first researches on it were made in the 1920s. The first musical records of multipart singing in Bulgaria are on gramophone plates and date back to the late 1930s. The mechanical recording of multipart songs on plates and magnetic tape continues during the 1940s, the 1950s and the 1960s. This ensures a good base for future research on this traditional musical practice in Bulgaria.

Audio recordings

"BHA" is a unique part of the traditional signature system of the State Soundrecording Company 'Balkanton'.

"VVD" is part of the name of a private soundrecording company from Blagoevgrad called 'VVD - Ruichev'.

"BNR" is an acronym of 'Bulgarian National Radio'.

1055 Rounder Records, 1990. Two Girls Started to Sing. Bulgarian Village Singing.

BHA 10218 Authentic Bulgarian Folk Songs from Plana and Koutela. Vocal Folk Groups.

BHA 11020 st. The Songs of Bansko. Male Vocal Group from Bansko lead by Ivan Matsourev.

BHA 11383 Bisserov Sisters, “Trakiiska Troika”.

BHA 11684 st. Chants from the Shopp Region. Performances of Female Vocal Groups from the Villages of Bistritsa and Simeonovo, Sofia District.

BHA 11862 Bisserov Sisters Sing Folk Songs from Pirin.

BHA 12322 Authentic Folklore Songs from Satovca and Dolen.

BNR, Authentic folklore from Pirin Macedonia, vol. 21, Male Folklore Group from Ribaritsa village in Bansko region and Female Folklore Group from Satovtsha.

BNR, Mladi izpûlniteli na avtentitshen Nedilinski folklor, children.

BNR, Nedelinski Dvuglas, Georgiev sisters.

BNR, Nedelinski Dvuglas, Hadgiev sisters.

BNR, Nedelinski Dvuglas, I part.

BNR, Shopski Dueti, Mitev brothers.

BNR, Female Singers Group from Dolni Lozen village.

CD Bisserov sisters & Co., 1998, From the roots to the top, Bisserov sisters and family, CD 10061955 LNM.

VVD-Ruichev, 1996, Tsûrno mi oko ergenche, Male Folklore Group from Razlog, MC 219606.

VVD-Ruichev, 1997, Pusta Mladost, Rasti Bore i…, Male Folklore Group from Bansko, MC 219707.

VVD-Ruichev, 1998, Sbrali se triese bekyara, Male Folklore Group ‘Pirinski grivatsi’ II part, MC 219809.

VVD-Ruichev, 1998, Stani Yano, Male Folklore Group ‘Pirinski grivatsi’ I part, MC 219808.

VVD-Ruichev, 1999, 1999-2000 after Christ. Obshtina Sandanski – chitalishte ‘Otets Paisii’– Male Folklore Group, Sandanski I part, MC 219914.

VVD-Ruichev, 1999, 1999-2000 after Christ. Obshtina Sandanski – chitalishte ‘Otets Paisii’– Male Folklore Group, Sandanski II part, MC 219915.

VVD-Ruichev, 1999, Poslushaite Patrioti, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, MC 219921.

VVD-Ruichev, 1999, Vo nashe selo, Male Folklore Group ‘Pirinski grivatsi’ and Milen Taskov III part, MC 219917.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Dessilitza, Folklore Singing Group from Dobrinishte village, I and II part, MC 2100.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Imate li ruino vino, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, MC 219923.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Imate li vino, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Poslushaite Patrioti, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, CD 210003.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Sitno se horo vieshe, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, CD 210004.

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Sitno se horo vieshe, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, MC 210025.

VVD-Ruichev, 2001, Planino, Perin, planino, Male Folklore Group from Bansko CD 210107.

VVD-Ruichev, 2001, Planino, Perin, planino, Male Folklore Group from Bansko, MC 210129.

VVD-Ruichev, 2002, Mori Trûgnal Yunak, Male Folklore Group from Ablanitsa village, Blagoevgrad region, CD 210213.

VVD-Ruichev, 2002, Mori Trûgnal Yunak, Male Folklore Group from Ablanitsa village, Blagoevgrad region, MC 210240.

VVD-Ruichev, 2002, Nalei, Krûchmaryu, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, CD 210216.

VVD-Ruichev, 2002, Nalei, Krûchmaryu, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, MC 210243.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, 25 godini Bisserov sisters, Bisserov sisters, CD 210319.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Vti festival na mûjkite folklorni pevcheski grupi i individualni izpûlniteli. Razlog 2003 [5th Festival of Male Folklore Singing Groups and Individual Performers. Razlog 2003], part I, MC210351.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Vti festival na mûjkite folklorni pevcheski grupi i individualni izpûlniteli. Razlog 2003 [5th Festival of Male Folklore Singing Groups and Individual Performers. Razlog 2003], part II, MC210352.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Yubileina kolektsiya - 25 godini Bisserov sisters, Bisserov sisters, MC 210348.

VVD-Ruichev, Galchev Engineering Group AG, 2001, Dessilitza, Folklore Singing Group from Dobrinishte village, CD 210104.

Gega New. Pusta Mladost, Zdravka Hristova and Pirinka Hristova, GD 264.

Gega New. The Bistritsa grannies and their granddaughters, Bistritsa granies and their granddaughters, GD 232.

Video recordings

VVD-Ruichev, 2000, Dessilitza, Folklore Singing Group from Dobrinishte village, VC 2100B05.

VVD-Ruichev, 2001, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, MC 2101B07.

VVD-Ruichev, 2002, Zalyubih si edno mome, Male Folklore Group, Sandanski, VC 2102B09.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Nalei, Krûchmaryu, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, DVD 2103B03.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Nalei, Krûchmaryu, Male Folklore Group ‘Perun’ – Razlog, VC 2103B12.

VVD-Ruichev, 2003, Zalyubih si edno mome, Male Folklore Group, Sandanski, DVD 2103B02.

Volumes of Musical Transcriptions

Kaufman, Nikolai & Iliya Manolov. 1994. Narodni pesni ot yugozapadna Bûlgaria. Pirinski krai. vol. 2, Sofia, BAS.

Kaufman, Nikolai & Todor Todorov. 1967. Narodni pesni ot yugozapadna Bûlgaria. Pirinski krai. vol. 1, Sofia, BAS.

Stoin, Vassil. 1959. Narodni pesni ot zapadnite pkrainini. Edited by Raina Katsarova, Sofia, BAS.

Stoin, Vassil. 1975. Narodni pesni ot Samokov I samokovsko. Edited by Elena Stoin, Sofia, BAS.

Texts

Articles and books preceded by an asterisk (*) also include musical transcriptions.

Abrasheva, Svetla. 1974. Bûlgarski naroden dvuglas. [Bulgarian folk two-voice singing] Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia.

Alexandrova, Boryana. 1983. Kûm vûprosa za usvoyavaneto na folklornata pesennost. [About mastering folklore singing] Bûslgarski folklor, N 3: 29-40.

Alexandrova, Boryana. 1990. Za muzikalniya ezik na pesnite, svûrzani s leten zemedelski trud (po materiali ot Blagoevgradska obshtina) [About the music language of the songs related to summer agricultural labour (on materials from the Blagoevgrad municipality)] In: Pirin pee ’85. Izsledvaniya i materiali, Sofia, BAN, p. 105-115.

Alexandrova, Boryana. 1991. Harakterni osobenosti na peeneto svûrzano sûs zemedelski trud. [Typical features of the singing related to agricultural labour] In: Bûlgarskiyat folklor v slavyanskata i balkanskata kulturna traditsiya. Problemi na Bûlgarskiya folklor. v8, Sofia, BAN, p. 253-258.

Botusharov, Lyuben. 1972. Narodnite pesni v Pazardjishki okrûg. [The folk songs in the Pazardjik region] Bûlgarska muzika, N 3: 41-48.

Bratanova, Radka. 1983. Razvitieto na Nedelinskiya dvuglas. [The evolution of the two-voice singing in Nedelino village] Bûlgarsko muzikoznanie, N 4: 78-88.

Bratanova, Radka. 2001. Nedelinskiya dvuglas – tshetiri desetiletiya po-kûsno. [The two-voice singing in Nedelino village – four decades later] Bûlgarski Foklor, N 1: 42-45.

Ilieva-Shturbanova, Anna. 1964. Muzikalno-folklorni prouchvaniya v Svogensko. [Folklore-musical researches in the Svoge region] In: Izvestiya na Instituta za muzika pri BAN, N 10: 165-216, Sofia.
Katsarova, Raina. 1959. Predgovor: Narodni pesni ot Zapadnite pokrainini. [Foreword: Folk songs from the Western outlying districts] Narodni pesni ot Zapadnite pokrainini, Sofia.

Kaufman, Dimitrina. 1998. Misteriyata na bûlgarskoto mnogoglasie. [The mistery of Bulgarian multipart singing] LKT Music, Plovdiv.

Kaufman, Dimitrina. 1999. Mnogoglasnata struktura – prostranstven model na obredite v prehod. [The structure of multipart singing – a spatial model of the evolution of rites] Bûlgarsko muzikoznanie, N 2: 129-133, Sofia.

Kaufman, Dimitrina. 1999. Prostranstveni kodove v strukturata na mnogoglasieto. []Bûlgarski folklore, N 3: 21-29, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1954. Dvuglasnoto narodno peene v Rodopite. [The two-voice singing in the Rodopi Mountain] Bûlgarska muzika, N 10: 26-28, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1958. Dvuglasnoto narodno peene v Bûlgariya. [Two-voice folk singing in Bulgaria] In: Spisanie na BAN, N 4: 45-58, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1958. Pesni ot Blagoevgradsko. [Songs from Blagoevgrad region] Bûlgarska muzika, N 3: 27-31, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1958. Pesni ot Blagoevgradsko. [Songs from Blagoevgrad region] Bûlgarska muzika, N 4-5: 26-31, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1959. Triglasnite narodni pesni ot Kostursko. [Three-voice folk songs from Kostur region] In: Izvestiya na Instituta za muzika pri BAN, N 6: 65-158, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1961. Narodnite pesni ot Smolyansko i Madansko. [Folk songs from the Smolyan and Madan regions] In: Izvestiya na Instituta za muzika pri BAN, N 7: 79-208, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1963. Dvuglasnite pesni v Sredna Zapadna Bûlgariya. [Two-voice songs in Middle West Bulgaria] Bûlgarska muzika, N 9: 13-19, Sofiya.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1963. Dvuglasnoto peene v Pazardjishko-Ihtimanskiya krai. [Two-voice singing in the Pazardjik-Ihtiman region] Bûlgarska muzika, N 1: 22-28, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1965. Narodnata muzika v Pirinskiya krai. [Folk music in the Pirin region] In: Izvestiya na instituta za muzika pri BAN, N 11: 149-219.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1967. Narodnoto mnogoglasie v tvorchestvoto na bûlgarskite kompozitori. [Folklore multipart systems in the creations of the Bulgarian composers] Bûlgarska muzika, N 10: 4-11.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1968. Bûlgarskata mnogoglasna narodna pesen. [The Bulgarian multipart folk song] Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia.

Kaufman, Nikolai. 1980. Ednovremenni i mnogoglasni oplakvaniya na pokoinitsi. [Simultaneous multipart bewailing of deceased persons] In: Vûprosi na etnografiyata i folkloristikata (Izsledvaniya v chest na Hristo Vakarelski). p. 140-146, Sofia.

Kuteva, Elena. 1976. Ladovo-harmonichni i kompozitsionno-strukturni osobenosti na pesnite "na visoko" i kombiniranite chetiriglasni pesni. [Mode-harmonic and compositional-structural features of the “on high” songs and the combined songs of Tshetrigrad type] In: Sbornik Bûlgarsko muzikoznanie, vol. 3: 30-70, Sofia.

Messner, Gerald Florian. 1980. Die Schwebungsdiaphonie in Bistrica. Tutzing 1980.

Messner, Gerald Florian. 1988. Za edni konsonans, za drugi disonans. (Kato zvыntsi li zvыnyat, ili viyat kato vыltsi? – Interferentsionnata diafoniya mejdu muzikalnite ponyatiya konsonans i disonans) [Consonance for some, dissonance for others. (Do they sing as bells or rather howl like wolves? – Interferentional diaphony between the notions consonance and dissonance)]. Vtori Mejdunaroden Kongres po Bûlgaristika. Dokladi. Folklor. BAS Sofia, 376-387.

Peycheva, Lozanka. 1991. Horovodnite pesni ot Kyustendilsko i Stankedimitrovsko (Funktsionalna, tipologicheska i istoricheska harakteristika). [The dance songs from the Kyustendil and Stanke Dimotrov regions (Functional, typological and historical characteristics)] Ph. D. Dissertation, Institut za folklor, Sofia.
Peycheva, Lozanka. 1991. Folklorno znanie za muzikata (Po materiali ot Kyustendilsko i Stankedimitrovsko). [Folklore knowledge about music (On materials from the Kyustendil and Stanke-Dimitrov regions)] Bûlgarski folklor, N 1: 15-26, Sofia.

Peycheva, Lozanka. 1992. Opit za usvoyavane na folklornata pesennost ot Dupnishkiya raion v nefolklorni kulturni usloviya (Opisanie na edin eksperiment). [An attempt to master the village singing tradition of Dupnitsa region in a non-traditional cultural environment (Description of an experiment)] Bûlgarski folklor, Sofia, 1992, N 4, 58-67

Rice, Timothy. 1990. Kûm razbiraneto na triglasnoto peene v Bûlgariya: vzaimodeistvie mejdu teoriya i praktika. [About understanding the three-voice singing in Bulgaria: a relation between theory and practice] In: Muzikalni horizonti, 1990, N 6 22-34.

Stoin, Elena. 1958. Dneshnoto sûstoyanie na narodnata muzika v Severozapadna Bûlgariya. [The contemporary state of the folklore music in North-West Bulgaria] Kompleksna nauchna ekspeditsiya v Severozapadna Bûlgariya prez 1956 g. , Sofia, p. 365-385.

Stoin, Elena. 1961. Narodnata pesen v Trûnsko i Kyustendilsko. Kompleksni nauchni ekspeditsii v Zapadna Bûlgariya, Trûnsko-Breznishko-Kyustendilsko prez 1957 i 1958 g, [The folklore songs in Trun and Kyustendil regions. Research expeditions in West Bulgaria, Trun-Breznik-Kyustendil region, in 1957 and 1958] Sofia, p. 447-480.

Stoin, Elena. 1970. Narodnata muzika v Sredna Zapadna Bûlgariya. [The folk music of Middle West Bulgaria] Izvestiya na instituta za muzika pri BAN, N 15: 97-186.

Stoin, Elena. 1981. Muzikalnofolklorni dialekti v Bûlgariya. [Musical-folklore dialects in Bulgaria] Muzika, Sofia.

Stoin, Vassil. 1956. Hipoteza za bûlgarskiya proizhod na diafoniyata. [A hypothesis of the Bulgarian origin of diaphonia] In: Bûlgarska narodna muzika, Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia, p.83-97.

Zaharieva, Svetlana. 1981. Vasil Stoin i negovata "Hipoteza za bûlgarskiya proizhod na diafoniyata". [Vasil Stoin and his “Hypothesis about the Bulgarian origin of the diaphonia phenomenon] Bûlgarsko muzikoznanie, N 3: 38-40, Sofia.

Zaharieva, Svetlana. 1984. Kûm vûprosa za proizhoda na mnogoglasieto. [About the origin of multipart singing] Bûlgarsko muzikoznanie, N 1: 62-75, Sofia.